Friday, February 3, 2012

Imam Hasan (AS) The Second Imam.

Born in Madina 15th Ramazan 3rd year of Hijri. Elder son of Ali and Fatima, grandson of the Prophet of Islam. When he was born and the news of the birth of a grandson was conveyed to the Holy Prophet he came to the house of Fatima, took hold of the baby in his arms, said Azan and Iqamah in his ears and said, this is a beautiful child, I name him Hasan. He will keep Islam and muslims safe from the hands of its destroyers. Historians note that this child looked like his grand father the Holy Prophet in looks and in manners.

Under the blessed shadow of the Holy Prophet Hasan was receiving his training from the most blessed parents on earth . Coming to the mosque of the Prophet, listening to the Sermons of his grand father and seeing Islam prosper was the lesson one can never forget. Whenever he came to the mosque ,the Holy Prophet would pick him up, would let him sit beside him and let the attentive companions see and behold who this boy was. They all loved his presence in the mosque and cared for him. Time soon passed and Hasan(AS) was hardly 8 years old when his grand father died and soon after his mother also died. The next 25 years of his life in Madina was with his father Ali (AS) and with his younger brother Hussain(AS). This was the period in which conquests of many lands took place and the city of Madina and its people prospered. His father or any member of the family of the Prophet did not take any hand in these conquests. They remained aloof but not from the growing muslim society. Their main aim was to teach and prepare this fledgling into a mature muslim society for harder times ahead. Wealth was pouring in from the conquests of Egypt and Persia and many companions of the Prophet did not know what to do with it or how to spend it properly. Many companions built large houses for themselves with stables and servants. What Ali(AS) and his family did was to form a Trust and whatever share of prosperity came to them they put all into this Trust. It is through this Trust those who did not have much to gain from this prosperity were given to have a decent life. Both children of Ali (AS) were the Trustees of this holy trust and with the help of many senior companions of the Holy Prophet the workings of this trust prospered and many new converts were helped to settle themselves in this new society. Every evening food was served to many of those who were not in a position to provide for themselves. While the family of Ali(AS) lived in small house and without any pomp or luxury for themselves. This was the example they were setting for all to see and follow that even when you have become rich you share your bounties with other muslim brothers and sisters to make the society equally prosperous and happy.

In these 25 years Hasan (AS) has seen the Islamic State grow into a much larger and more powerful muslim nation. After the death of the 3rd Caliph Osman his father Ali(AS) was elected caliph by a popular vote of the companions of the Holy Prophet. But soon there emerged those who wanted a lot of favour from Ali(AS) and when they did not get it they stood against him. The battle of Jamal was fought and won by Ali(AS) and the capital of the muslim state was removed from Madinah to Kufa. Kufa was established during the reign of the 2nd caliph as a garrison town and was much more central to the vastly growing muslim Empire than Madinah. This was a very prudent move to give a better control over all corners of this growing muslim state which stretched from North Africa in the West, to Persia and Azerbaijan in the East. Ali (AS) has appointed his own trustworthy Governors of the provinces but none of them from his own family. All his children stayed with him at the centre or in Madinah to control the Trust he had formed earlier or to join in the battles of Jamal, Siffin and Nahrwan fought during the life of the Khilafat of Ali(AS) Hasan (AS) took part with his father in all these battles and shown the customary Hashemite bravery and skill in defeating the enemy. In these battles the real adversary of Ali(AS) and his family was Moswiya ibne Abu Sofian who challenged Ali’s authority and fought with him to remain the governor and later the ruler of the province of Syria. His atrocities against the rule of Ali(AS) continued even after the near defeat at Siffin. After the martyrdom of Ali (AS) in the mosque of Kufa in 41 Hijri and the election of Hasan (AS) as the next caliph was a thorn in the heart of Moawiya. His propaganda machine against the House of Ali (AS), in fact against Islam, began its work in earnest. Large sums of money and fraudulent promises of vast properties and governorships of provinces were given to many commanders of Hasan’s(AS) army who deand left Hasan(AS) without much power.

One salient feature one must remember when reading about the lives of these Masoomeen that they never waged war for acquisition of wordly power. It was therefore the hallmark of Imam Hasan ‘s(AS)life that making peace was his share in the same manner as the Prophet of Islam did in Hodaibiya. Some unfortunate companions of the Prophet doubted even him of his wisdom to make peace to which the Prophet replied," he was the messenger of God and his instructions always come from God." When people in Madinah disagreed with Imam Hasan’s attitude and questioned his wisdom he replied that his actions were similar to that of Prophet Khidhr who acted to save on three occasions the lives and property of Orphans and many believers of God. Even Prophet Musa was unable to comprehend the wisdom of those actions until this was explained to him. As the tradition tells us that" in the blood of martyrs lies the ink of history "and often bedazzled by the heroic splendour of their sacrifices, we forget the many occasions when the greater Jihad has lain along the path of peace than war. His confrontation with Moawiya demanded a treaty rather than blood and Imam’s victory lay in that treaty and in the preservation of those faithful muslims whose premature death in battle at that time would have extinguished the light of Islam original.

It was the life of Imam Hasan (AS) that paved the way for his younger brother’s glorious stand. They were two sides of the same coin, one on living the Jihad of peace and the other the Jihad of martyrdom. Both acted out their paths fully, bearing the banner of their blessed grandfather, in uncompromising defence of Right and in denial of evil. They joyfully praised their creator in happiness and in adversity, submitting to His Divine laws and leaving for us an example of correct behaviour both in peace and in war.

Here were two brothers who from their cradle breathed the air of pure spirit of Islam, nurtured by the love of the Prophet in whose close company they spent their early years. It was the Holy Prophet who said that both “Hasan and Hussain are the chiefs of the youth of paradise”. Several traditions from his mother and from Umme Salemah,the wife of the Prophet, clearly indicates that Imam Hasan (AS) was one of those five who were included in the Verse of purification (33-33)” Certainly Allah wants to keep away all abomination from you, members of the house, to keep you pure and spotless.” The Prophet then covered them with a garment and said,” these are the members of my house. Allah, keep away abomination from them and keep them pure and spotless.” It was also during the occasion of Mubahela that the Prophet took these five with him to show the world who were the members of his household (Ahlulbayt).

It is reported on the authority of Anas bin Malik that no one was more like the Prophet of God than Al-Hasan bin Ali. (AS)

The Treaty agreed upon between Moawiya and Imam Hasan (AS) tells us the following salient points:

  1. That Moawiya should rule strictly according to the Holy QurAan and the Sunna of the Prophet.
  2. That Moawiya should not appoint or nominate anyone to the Khilafat after him but that the choice should be left to the Muslims.
  3. That the people should be left in peace, wherever they are in the land of God.
  4. That the persecution of the companions of Imam Ali(AS) should immediately be stopped; their lives and properties and families guaranteed safe conduct and peace.
  5. That the cursing of Imam Ali (AS) from the pulpit should stop immediately.
  6. That no harm should be done secretly or openly against Imam Hasan and his brother Imam Hussain or any of the Ahlubayt.(AS)

This agreement concluded, Imam Hasan (AS) went to Kufa, shortly followed by Moawiya who came their to take the allegiance of the people. In a speech delivered in front of Moawaiya, Imam Hasan (AS) explained the situation clearly.:

“O’People, Allah has guided you through our elders (Muhammad and Ali) and spared you from bloodshed through those who followed (referring to himself). Indeed this (the Khilafat) is nothing but a passing phase, these wordly possessions keep shifting and changing hands."

For inasmuch as Moawiya desired the sovereignty in this world, so Imam Hasan’s concern was not with worldly leadership for its own sake, but as a tool whereby he might guide the people towards God and His true commandments. After his abdication he retired to Madinah where he spent the remaining ten years of his life teaching the Qora'an and knowledge of true Deen to all seekers of truth that came to him.Imam Hasan (AS) had never relinquished the position of an Imam and guide as appointed by God.

History tells us that from day one Moawiya did not comply with any one of the terms of the treaty agreed upon between him and Imam Hasan (AS) He trampled the treaty under his feet saying to the people of Kufa,”do you think I have taken power to teach you about Islam. No, I have taken power for the sake of it and if any one of you tries to disagree with me shall pay a costly price of losing his head.(Tarikul Kholafa, Jalaluddin Soyuti)

Moawiya carried out his ambition of keeping the power in his family by nominating his son Yazid after him as the ruler of the Kingdom. This demanded that Imam Hasan(AS) should predecease him, an unlikely event considering their discrepancy in their ages. Hence Moawiya bribed Ju’da bint Ash’ath, to poison him in 50 Hijri. Imam died with the effect of poisoning on 28th of the month of Safar. He was 47 years old.

In his last will and testament Imam asked his brother Imam Hussain (AS) to take his body to the grave of their grand father the Prophet of Islam and then bury him by the side of the grave of his mother Fatima (SA) in Jannatul Baqii, for he knew that people who are against the family of the Prophet would not let him bury by the side of his grandfather. Imam knew of the animosity of the Banu Umayya with the Prophet and his family. He did not desire to have any dispute or fight over his burial. But unfortunately when the body of the Imam was taken towards the grave of the Holy Prophet in the mosque, the same enemy about whom Imam had warned, came out and prevented the mourners to reach the grave of the Prophet. When Imam Hussain (AS) realised that if he insists on taking the body of his brother nearer the grave of the Prophet there will be bloodshed, he refrained from it and took him away and buried him in Jannatul Baqii next to the grave of his mother.

Imam Hasan’s (AS) 3 sons, Qasim, Abdullah and Hasan-e-Muthanna, were in Kerbala and took part in the Jihad with their uncle Imam Hussain (AS). Qasim and Abdullah died of their wounds but Hasan-e-Muthanna survived. He was among the wounded and was taken out alive by the Banu Asad Tribesmen. They treated his wounds and once he was better he returned back to Madinah. It appears that he stayed with the Banu Asad for over a year and when the family of the Prophet were released from captivity and returned to Kerbala he joined the caravan and returned with them to Madinah after the Arabeen in the year 62 Hijri. He was about 17 years old at that time. Later, he married Imam Hussain ‘s (AS) daughter Fatima Sughra. It is from this marriage that the descendants oImam Hasan (AS) take their line in the family tree. Hasan-e-Muthanna’s son Abdullah had four sons, Muhammad Nafse Zakiyya, Ibrahim ,Sulaiman and Idris. Nafse Zakiyya rose against Mansur the 2nd Abbasid Caliph and received martyrdom, in the year 142 Hijri, 762 AD. Ibrahim fought Mansur in Baghdad and was martyred. This was in 143 Hijri 763 AD(See Hitti,History of the Arabs) Two other great grandsons of Imam Hasan, Sulaiman and Idris migrated to Iran and Tunisia respectively. Descendents of Imam Hasan from Idris flourished in North Africa and brought Islam in the Maghrib. From Sulaiman, who settled in Kirman, many of his descendents spread Islam in Persia and some of them later migrated to India. The writer of this book is also one of the descendents of Imam Hasan(AS) from the line through Sulaiman.

Imam Hasan’s (AS) life was one of hardship and trial. like the lives of his grandfather tProphet of Islam, his father Ali (AS), his mother Fatima (SA) and many members of the Ahlulbayt after him. Life is a test as Qoran tells us. For some,the difficulties of life make him arrogant or agnostic but not the people of the household of the Prophet. They endured all sorts of hardships with thanks to God all the time. He saw his mother brutally injured and died at an early age. He saw his father martyred in the mosque of Kufa. He saw the people who had been given the clear signs from his grandfather, abandon the” Deen” for wealth and power. He saw his own supporters turn against him. Yet his dying request to his brother was not to have any quarrel over his burial. His life is a sign and a reminder that for the people of the Household of the Prophet there will be adversity but they take all in complete submission to God and His commandments.

A famous saying of Imam Hasan is “ In regard to the world be as if you were going to live forever. With respect to the Hereafter, be as if you were going to die tomorrow.”

This is an invitation to action, care and attention and avoidance of negligence and indifference, whether it is in respect of the work of this world or the Hereafter. This further confirms the saying of the Holy Prophet who said, “ The Momin is a person who attends the affairs of this world as well as of the Hereafter in the most perfect way,”

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Saying of Hazrat Ali (A.S)

Shabbir and Abbas Tejani Noha 2009 Ya hussain ibne ali

0ne of the best and favorite Noha, very nice and beautifully writen and reciated, great words, Beautiful Noha.

Friday, January 27, 2012

Imam Hussain Ibn Ali (AS) the third Imam.

Name :
al-Hussain(a.s.) - the 3rd Holy Imam
Title :
Syed ush-shuhada (Master of the Martyrs)
Agnomen :
Abu Abdellah.
Father :
Imam Ali Amir al-Muminin(a.s.) - the 1st Holy Imam
Mother :
Bibi Fatimah(a.s.) (daughter of the Holy prophet).
Birth :
In Medina on Thursday, 3rd shaban 4 AH. (625 AD)
Death :
Martyred in Karbala (Iraq) at the age of 57, on friday, 10th Muharram 61 AH (680 AD) and buried there.

IN THE house of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf), which presented the best image of both the worlds - the heaven and the earth - a child who benefited humanity as if he was Divine Impression reflecting the earth, was bron on the 3rd night of the month of Shaban. His father was Imam Ali(a.s.), the best model of kindness towards his friends and the bravest against the enemies of Islam, and his mother was Hazrat Fatimah(s.a.), the only daughter and child of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) who had as universally acknowledged, inherited the qualities of her father. Imam Hussain(a.s.), is the third Apostolic Imam. When the good news of his birth reached the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf), he came to his daughter's house, took the newly-born child in his arms, recited adham and iqamah in his right and left ears respectively, and on the 7th day of his birth, after performing the rites of aqiqah, named him al-Husayn, in compliance with Allah's(swt) command. Hassan(a.s.) and Hussain(a.s.), the two sons of the Holy Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib(a.s.) and Hazrat Fatimah(s.a.),our Lady of Light, were respected and revered as the "Leaders of the Youths of Paradise" as stated by the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf).

The Holy Prophet Muhammad(pbuh&hf) had openly prophesied that the faith of Islam would be rescued by his second grandson Hussain(a.s.), when Yazid, son of Muawiayh, would endeavour to destroy it. Yazid was known for his devilish character and brutish conduct. He was known as the most licentious of men. The people having known and understood the character of Yazid, formed a covenant by which Muawiyah could not appoint Yazid as his successor. This undertaking was given by Muawiyah to Imam Hassan(a.s.) from whom Muawiyah had snatched power. Muawiyah violated this undertaking and nominated Yazid who succeded his father. Immediately as he came to power, Yazid began acting in full accordance with his known character. He started interfering in the fundamentals of the faith and practised every vice and wickedness freely with the highest degree of impunity and yet held himself out as the successor of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf), demanding allegiance to himself as the leading guide of the faith. Paying allegiance to Yazid was nothing short of acknowledging the devil as God. If a divine personality like the Holy Imam Hussain(a.s.) had agreed to his authority, it would be actually recommending the divil to humanity in place of God. Yazid demanded alleginace from the Holy Imam Hussain(a.s.), who could have never agreed to it at any cost. The people fearing death and destruction at the hands of the tyrant had yielded to him out of fear. Imam Hussain(a.s.) said that come whatever may, he would never yield to the devil in place of God and undo what his grandfather, the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) had established. The refusal of the Holy Imam(a.s.) to pay allegiance to this fiend, marked the start of the persecution of the Holy Imam(a.s.). As a result he had retired to Medina where he led a secluded life. Even here he was not allowed to live in peace, and was forced to seek refuge in Mecca where also he was badly harassed, and Yazid plotted to murder him in the very precincts of the great sanctuary of Kaabah. The people of Kufa getting tired of the tyrannic and satanic rule of Yazid, had written innumerable letters and sent emissaries to Imam Hussain(a.s.) to come over and give them guidance in faith. Although Imam Hussain(a.s.) knew the ultimate end of the invitations, he as the divinely chosen Imam could not refuse to give the guidance sought for. When the Holy Imam(a.s.) with his entourage had reached Karbala, his horse mysteriously stopped and would not move any further. Upon this the Holy Imam(a.s.) declared: "This is the land , the land of sufferings and tortures." He alighted from his horse, and ordered his followers to encamp there saying: "Here shall we be martyred and our childern be killed. Here shall our tents be burned and our family arrested. This is the land about which my grandfather the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) had foretold, and his prophecy will certainly be fulfilled." On the 7th Muharram water supply to the Imam's camp was cut and he torture of thirst and hunger started. The Holy Imam's(a.s.) camp consisted of ladies, innocent chidlren including babies and some male members of the Holy Prophet's(pbuh&hf) family; along with a samll band of some faithful friends of Imam Hussain(a.s.) who had chosen to die with the Holy Imam, fighting against the devil for the cause of Allah(swt).

The Day of Ashura ( 10th of Muharram ):

At dawn the Imam(a.s.) glanced over the army of Yazid and saw Umar ibn-e-Sa'ad ordering his forces to march towards him. He gathered his followers and addressed them thus:" Allah has, this day, permitted us for our martyrdom. So Perpare yourselves to fight against the enemies of Islam with patience and resistance. O sons of the noble and self - respecting persons, be patient! Death is nothing but a bridge which you must cross after facing trials and tribulations so as to reach Heaven and its joys. Which of you do not like to go from this prison (world) to the lofty palaces (Paradise)?" Having heard the Imam's(a.s.) address, All his companions were overwhelmed and cried out ," O our Master! We are all ready to defend you and your Ahlu l-bayt, and to sacrifice our lives for the cause of Islam."

Imam Hussain(a.s.) sent out his companions from his camp one after another to fight and sacrifice their lives in the way of the Lord. Lastly, when all his men and children had laid down their lives, Imam Hussain(a.s.) brought his six- month old baby son Ali Asghar(a.s.), and offering him on his own hands, demanded some water for the baby, dying of thirst. The thirst of the baby was quenched by a deadly poisoned arrow from the brute's forces, which pinned the baby's neck to the arm of the helpless father. At last when the six-month old baby also was killed, Imam Hussain(a.s.) addressed Allah(swt): "O Lord! Your Husayn has offered in your way whatever your had blessed him with. Bless Your Hussain, O Lord! with the acceptance of this sacrifice. Every thing Hussain could do till now was through Your help and by Your Grace." Lastly Imam Hussain(a.s.) came into the field and was martyred, the details of which merciless slaughter are heart rending. The forces of Yazid having killed Imam Hussain(a.s.), cut and severed his head from his body and raised it on a lance. The severed head of the Holy Imam(a.s.) beagn glorifying Allah(swt) from the point of the lance saying,` Allahu Akbar'. "All glory be to Allah Who is the Greatest!" After the wholesale, merciless and most brutal slaughter of the Holy Imam(a.s.) with his faithful band, the helpless ladies and children along with the ailing son of Imam Hussain(a.s.), Imam Ali Zain-ul-Abideen(a.s.), were taken captives.

Some Sayings of the Holy Prophet During his Lifetime with Reference to Imam Husayn:

  1. Hassan(a.s.) and Hussain(a.s.) are the leaders of the Youths of Paradise.
  2. Hussan(a.s.) is from me and I am from Hussain(a.s.) , Allah befriends those who befriend Hussain(a.s.) and He is the enemy of those who bear enmity to him.
  3. Whoever wishes to see such a person who lives on earth but whose dignity is honoured by the Heaven dwellers, should see my grandson Hussain(a.s.).
  4. O my son! your flesh is my flesh and your blood is my blood, your are a leader , the son of a leader and the brother of a leader; your are a spiritual guide, the son of a spiritual guide and the brother of a spiritual guide; you are an Apostolical Imam , the son of an Apostolical Imam and the brother of an Apostolical Imam; your are the father of nine Imams, the ninth of whom would be the Oaim (the last infallible spiritual guide).
  5. The punishment inflicted on the murderer of Hussain(a.s.) in Hell would be equal to half of the total punishment to be imposed on the entire sinners of the world.
  6. When the Holy Prophet(phuh&hf) informed Hazrat Fatimah(s.a.) of the Martyrdom in store for his grandson, she burst into tears and asked, "O my father! when would my son be martyred?" "In such a critical moment," he replied," When neither I nor you, nor Ali would be alive. " This accentuated her grief and she inquired again," Who then, O my father, would commemorate Hussain's martyrdom?". The Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) said, "The men and the women of a particular sect of my followers, who will befriend my Ahl-ul-Bayt, will mourn for Hussain and commemorate his martyrdom each year in every century."

Ibn Saad narrates from ash-shabi:

Imam Ali(a.s.) while on his way to Siffin, passed through the desert of Karbala, there he stopped and wept very bitterly. When interrogated regarding the cause of his weeping, he commented that one day he visited the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) and found him weeping. when he asked the Apostle of Allah(swt) as to what was the reason which made him weep, he replied, "O Ali Gabriel has just been with me and informed me that my son Hussain would be martyred in Karbala, a place near the bank of the River Euphartes. This moved me so much that I could not help weeping."

Anas ibn Harith narrates:

One day the Holy Prophet ascended the pulpit to deliver a sermon to his associates while Imam Hussain(a.s.) and Imam Hassan(a.s.) were sitting before him. When address was over, he put his left hand on Imam Hussain(a.s.) and raising his head towards Heaven, said:"O my lord! I am Muhammad Your slave and Your prophet, and these two are the distinguished and pious members of my family who would fortify my cause after me. O my Lord! Gabriel has informed me that son Hussain would be killed. O my Lord! bless my cause in recompense for Hussain's martrydom, make him the leader of the martyrs, be You be his helper and guardian and do not bless his murderers".

Khwaja Mu inu d-Din Chishti says:

He gave his head but did not put his hand into the hands of Yazid. Verily, Hussain is the foundation of "La ilaha il Allah". Hussain is lord and the lord of lords. Hussain(a.s.) himself is Islam and the shield of Islam. Though he gave his head (for Islam) but never pledged Yazid. Truly Hussain(a.s.) is the founder of "There is no Deity except Allah."

Ali (AS) The First Imam

It was Friday 13th of Rajab 30 Amulfeel Hazrat Fatima binte Asad, the wife of Hazrat Abu Talib entered the precincts of the Kaaba and prayed to Allah saying O’my protector ease my pain.’All of a sudden the wall of the Kaaba opened up and she, as if by some unseen force went inside the Kaaba and the wall closed. Ali (AS) the youngest son of Abu Talib was born inside the Holy Kaaba. She stayed inside for three days. On the 3rd day she came out through the door and Muhammad was waiting outside. She told Muhammad (SA) that the boy had not taken any milk. Muhammad gave him the first feed from his mouth and afterwards asked his uncle Abu Talib that he wished to adopt the baby. Ali entered the house of Muhammad from the very first day of his birth. Ali’s mother Fatima binte Assad Also lived there who looked after his own son as well as Muhammad(SA) so much so that later the Holy Prophet used to say that she was like his own mother.

Shah Waliullah, Mohadith-e-Dehlvi writes in the book “Izalatul Kholafa” giving reference from Imam Hakim in his Mustadrak Part 3, Page 483. Qud Tawatarul Akhbar Inna Fatimah Binte Asad woledat Aliyan Fi Jaufil Kaaba”. Another writer of the old school Sibtel Jauzi in his book Tazkeratul Khawas ul Umma, page 7 mentions the same fact that Ali was born inside the Kaaba.

Khawja Moinuddin Chishti Ajmeri mentions this fact in his famous Quartet saying that when Ali was born inside the kaaba the Sky and the earth was filled with a light and Angel Gabril announced that a child was born in the house of God.

Maulan Rume in his Mathnawi writes, “ O’one who travels to Najef to visit the tomb of Ali must know the fact that the pearl of the Kaaba lies there to give us security because of our intense love for him.”

Masoodi the famous historian writes in his book of history Muruj el Zahab, that Ali was born inside the Kaaba on the orders of Muhammad the Messenger of God.

It was after the adoption of Ali(AS) that he lived with the Holy Prophet in his house.

Wherever Muhammad(SA) went Ali(AS) was with him all the time. Even in the Mountain of Hira when Muhammad (SA)went for meditation Ali(AS) went with him most of the time. Sometimes they stayed on the mountain for 3 or 4 days. Some times Ali (AS) took his food their. In Nehjul Balagha Ali(AS) said that “ I used to go with the Holy Prophet like the baby camel goes with his mother.”

Some historians try to show that when Muhammad(SA) declared his prophethood Ali(AS) was the first among male children who accepted Islam. The implication here is that both Muhammad(SA) and Ali(AS) were non -believers before this declaration. This is against the Qur'anic verdict which says that Ibrahim was a muslim and he taught his children to be muslims so that when the Prophet was born among the descendents of Ibrahim through the line of Ismael he was born a muslim and so was Ali. The correct thing to say would be that when Muhammad (SA)declared his prophethood openly Ali (AS) immediately adhered to the declaration without hesitation.

The three persons seen in prayers in the Kaaba were Muhammad, Khadija and Ali before anyone else accepted Islam. For 3 years young and poor persons of Makka were accepting Islam secretly. The first open declaration came when the Qora'anic verse tells the Prophet to "come out openly and warn the people of your own clan." Invitations were sent to leaders of the Banu Hashim to come to the house of Muhammad (SA)for Dinner. Forty of them came, ate food and then heard Muhammad (SA)about his mission of ‘ No god but Allah and Muhammad(SA) as the messenger of Allah and whoever offers his help to propagate this religion will be his deputy and successor. No one stood up except Ali(AS). After announcing this 3 times Muhammad(SA) declared that Ali (AS)will be his deputy to his mission and will be his successor after him. People thought it as a joke that a 13 year old boy was to be a deputy of this prophetic mission. Even Abu Lahab jokingly told Abu Talib, go and obey your son to which AbuTalib smilingly accepted. Ali(AS) promissed to help Muhammad(SA) in his mission and kept this promise all his life.

The next thing which we see in the life of Ali (AS)is the reflection of this promise he gave at this place in front of the leaders of the Qoraish.

We see Ali(AS) protecting Muhammad(SA) from the abuses of the enemies of Islam. When Muhammad (SA)went to Taif a nearby town to preach Islam children of Taif hurled stones and it was Ali(AS)who protected the Prophet and drove the stone throwing children away from the Prophet.

As a youth Ali(AS) was strongly built, strong arms, wide chest and a very strong brave and shining face. Children of his age and even older to him were frightened of him and whenever they tried to mock the Prophet, they always ran away when they saw Ali (AS)standing by for protection.

Time passed and hostility of the Qoraish increased so much so that Muhammad (SA) was ordered by Allah to leave Makka. Ali(AS) slept on Muhammad’s bed without hesitation and when the non believers entered the house of Muhammad(SA) to kill they found Ali(AS) who was not afraid at all at the site of 40 swordsmen entering the house. When they questioned Ali,”where was Muhammad” he bravely replied, did you leave him in my custody? When after 3 days of Muhammad’s departure Ali returned all the goods entrusted to Muhammad to their owners, he set out to leave Makka for Madina with the rest of the family. Ali(AS) had with him his mother Fatima binte Asad, His aunt, the wife of Hamza, and Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad(SA) and many other ladies. Non-believers of Makka tried to stop Ali(AS) from his departure but Ali (AS)fought back, drove the infidels away and safely reached Madina. Muhammad(SA) was waiting for the family outside the precincts of the town. He entered the city with Ali(AS) and the rest of the family.

The Holy Prophet created a bond of brotherhood between the muslims, making Ali(AS) as his muslim brother saying O’Ali, you are my brother in this world as well as in the next.

Once the family settled in the newly adopted city of Madina their first task was to complete the mosque around which their houses were also built. Ali initially stayed with his mother but when he married Fatima the daughter of the Prophet he was given a house next to the Prophet by the side of the mosque. He had been betrothed to her several days before the battle of Badr. But the marriage was celebrated three months later. Ali was about 23 years old and Fatima was 18. This was most happy and celebrated marriage. The distinctiveness of their respectivecharacters blended so well with each other that they never quarrelled and complained of one another and led a happy and most contended life. Materially the couple did not posses much, spiritually they were at the highest level of assent. They had no worries if they go hungry or their clothes had patches.They would be more concerned if an orphan goes away from their door without receiving any food.

History records Ali’s life in Madina with the Holy Prophet for the next ten years as the most busy in defending Islam against the attackers from Makka. Ali(AS) was always the standard bearer of the Flag of Islam in all such battles and his bravery became legendary.

Ibne Abil Hadid, the Motazelli commentator of Nahjul Balagha says that: Ali(AS) had a personality in which opposite characteristics had so gathered that it was difficult to believe a human mind could manifest such a combination. He was the bravest man that history could cite and such brave men are always hard hearted, cruel and eager to shed blood. On the contrary Ali was kind, sympathetic, responsive and warmhearted person, qualities quite contrary to the other phase of his character and more suited to pious and God fearing persons.Ali’s bravery and piety both became legendry.Life in Madina while the Holy Prophet was alive was the most busy for Ali. But he remembers these times as the best times of his life. He says in Nehjul Balagha ‘ Life with my brother was a life of ease and happiness.’

The battles of Badr, Ohud, Khandaq and Khyber were fought in the defence if Islam and won on the hands of Ali(AS). He was not only the standard bearer of the Flag of Islam in these battles,but always lead the forces of Islam against Kufr and came out victorious. Khyber was the climax of these battles when Ali’s victory brought prosperity in the muslim ranks. Ayesha the wife of the Prophet said once that until the victory of Khyber we in the house of the Prophet spent days without food. It was only after Khyber that life at home became a little easier. Thus Ali(AS) brought an end to the hostilities of Quraish in three encounters of Badr, Ohud and Khandaq. Their best warriors were killed, their unity against Islam was crushed, their pride was humiliated and their prestige before Arab clans was lowered by him and by him alone. Khyber saw an end to the hegmony of jews in Arabia at the hands of Ali(AS).

The peace agreement of Hodaibiya was written by Ali (AS)and at the time of the peaceful victory at Makka, the idols of the Kaaba were demolished by the Holy Prophet with the help of Ali(AS).Details of these battles were shown in the life of the Prophet.

Battle of Honain.

The Victory of Makka brought many non believers into the fold of Islam. Broadly speaking there were three types who embraced Islam. Fear, greed and the true understanding of Islam and its principles. Some of the Makkans became muslims for fear of their lives, they were afraid that the Prophet would kill them, others were simply frightened that the Holy Prophet with the help of Angel Gabriel would bring the wrath of God on them. Then there was greed that Islam was now victorious, so if they joined in the good life would be theirs for free. Very few of them truly understood Islam and accepted it as a true faith. The Test of their true faith came immediately after the fall of Makka while muslims were still in the sweet pleasure of this bloodless victory,that various tribes outside Makka gathered an army of 20,000 in Taif to fight the muslims. The hostile tribes decided to attack at a vantage point at Hunain and selected two prominent places where they concealed their archers. The Muslims were proud of their success in Makka,but their behaviour during the encounter was timorous and cowardly. Qur'an tells us this in Sura Tauba V9 “God came to your help on so many occasions, on the day of Honain, your vanity in the number of your soldiers and your arrogance did not prove any avail to you, you were badly defeated and could not find any place of shelter, you started running away without shame.”

This encounter took place in the month of Shawwal 8th Hijri (Jan 630 AD). When the muslim army marched towards the place where archers were concealed the enemy opened the campaign with such a severe onslaught that the muslim army could not stand it. Their assault was fierce and confusion in the muslim ranks made the archers bolder and they came nearer and attacked from both flanks and from the front. The muslims could not stand the attack and started running without putting any resistance and where not concerned to leave the Prophet alone,(see Saheeh Bukhari)

The first battalion to run was the one in the command of Khalid ibne Waleed(Rauzathus Safa vol II pafw 137) This was followed by such a disorderly and tumultuous flight that only 10 people were left out of an army of 15,000 with the Holy Prophet. Eight of them were of Bani Hashim,(.Abbas, two of his sons, Ali and three other cousins of the Holy Prophet)

Abbas was shouting to the muslims to come back, reminding them of the oath of allegiance taken and promises made, but it was to no avail. Those who accepted Islam for greed , wealth and power were not willing to risk their lives.Many of them who had carefully hidden their enmity from the rising power were happy at the defeat. They gathered round Abu Sofian, started congratulating him and saying, "The magical circle of the lying Prophet is broken,” They were praying for the return of Polytheism. 1.

Once again it fell to the lot of Ali(AS) to save the Holy Prophet and the Islam. Armies of Bani Hawaazen and Banu Saqeef under cover of their archers were rushing the hillock and were getting ready for a fierce onslaught. Ali(AS) divided the small band of faithful true muslims in three divisions; to Abdullah Ibne Masood, Abbas ibne Abdul Muttalib and Abu bin Harris has assigned the duty of protecting the Holy Prophet, to three he ordered to guard the rear and he himself faced the onslaught with only three warriors with him. He fought, wounded at many places,but continue fighting when he faced the commander of the hostile army, Abu Jerdal in hand to hand fight and killed him with one stroke of his sword. He alone killed over 30 of the enemy and with this bravery his aids also fought bravely and enemy was defeated.The day was saved, the commander of the enemy’s army was killed,their ranks were broken they had no courage to face Ali(AS) and they started retreating. The sight of the powerful army in retreat, made the fleeing muslims bold and they came back as victory was won for them 2.

The defensive battles were over and the peaceful spread of Islam began. Ali(AS) was again in the forefront. He brought the whole tribe of bani Hamdan to Islam by preaching . Similarly when he was sent to Yemen he brought the whole country in to the fold of Islam by his sermons. This news so pleased the Holy Prophet that he bowed down in Sajdah to thank God three times and said loudly, peace be to Bani Hamdan and to Ali. Again in the year 10th of Hijra Ali’s sermon and preachings proved so effective that the whole province embraced Islam as one man.

In the 9th year of Hijra the famous event of Mobahela took place. Najran was a city in the province of Yemen. It was the centre of Christian Missionary activities in southern Arabia. The Holy Prophet had written to the Chief Priest of the City to realize the blessings of Islam. In reply he wrote that he personally would like to discuss the teachings of this new religion. His name was Haris. He was invited and came with a group of 14 priests. These priests as guest of the Holy Prophet. Long discussions took place during the course of 4 days of their stay in Madina. When Sunday came the Chief priest wanted to go out of the city to have their Sunday Service. Prophet Islam said that they all have permission to conduct their religious service inside the mosque of the Prophet which they happily did. Long discussions continued about monotheism verses trinity and it was realised that these priests were not open minded, on the contrary they were prejudiced against monotheism. The Almighty Lord ordered the Holy Prophet to explain to tthat “ Verily Jesus is as Adam in the sight of God. He created Adam from dust. He said unto him, Be, and he was. This is truth from thy Lord. be not therefore one of those who doubt, and whoever shall dispute thee, say unto them, “come let us call together our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our Selves and your Selves, then let us make imprecations and lay the curse of God upon those who lie. (Sura Ale Imran, V. 61) According to Bibi Ayesha when the above verse was revealed to the Apostle of God, he called Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Hussain and said, “Lord, this is my family (Ahlulbayt). The Holy Prophet took this small family with them to the open land outside the city where they all assembled to bring the curse of God on those who lie. When the Chief priest saw these faces, he told his companions that he was looking at the faces that if they call the mountain, the mountain will go them. Do not have Mobahela with them or you will be destroyed. On hearing this they all agreed to pay homage to the Holy Prophet and an annual tax for living in the Islamic State and withdrew from the scene.

Designation of Ali as successor to the Prophet

In history there were numerous occasions when the Holy Prophet designated Ali as his Deputy and successor after him. From the moment of Zulasheera to the time of the conquest of Khyber and the occasion of the battle of Tabuke the Holy Prophet made it abundantly clear that no one deserved more than Ali to be his Deputy and successor. But at the time of Ghadeer this was clearly ordered by Allah through a clear verse revealed on the Prophet. The Verse said,

"O’ apostle; proclaim the whole of that which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord, for if thou dost it not, it will be as if thou hast not at all performed the duty of His Prophethood. And God will protect thee from evil men, verily God guideth not the unbelievers.” ( Sura 5 : V.67.)

The occasion was after the last pilgrimage in 10th Hijri. The Prophet delivered his Sermons on Mount Arafat, had the final rounds of the Kaaba and left for Madina. More than 120,000 pilgrims were coming out with him from Makka going to the North. Half way through their journey where the routes were separated for various pilgrims, the Holy Prophet ordered the whole caravan to halt. All those who went ahead were called back and for those who were behind they waited for them to arrive. The place was Ghadeer, near the pool of water. That is why it was named Ghadeer-e-Khom. When all assembled at this place the Holy Prophet stood up on top of the pulpit and said, "O’people, shortly I shall be called towards my creator where I shall have to give an account as to how I have conveyed His message to you and you in your turn will be asked as to how you have accepted and carried out the teachings. Now tell me what you will say”. Thereupon all the pilgrims declared as one man, "O’Apostle of God, we testify and declare that you have conveyed the message of God fully, you have strived your utmost to guide us to the Right Path and taught us to follow it. You were most kind to us and you never wished for us but our good, may God repay you for all that." After that the Prophet said, "Do you not testify that there is no god but Allah,that Muhammad is His creature,His servant, and His apostle, that there is the Heaven and the Hell,that death will over take every one of you,that you will be brought back from your graves that the Day of Judgement will surely dawn and human beings will be resurrected from their graves to account for their deeds. The whole crowd declared in unison, "We believe and testiy all this." Hearing this the Apostle declared, "I am leaving amongst you two most important things worthy of obedience, the Qur’an and my progeny (Ahlulbayt). Take care how you treat them, they will not separate from each other till they reach me at the fountain of Kauser.” Then he said, “ The Almighty God is my Lord (Maula) and I am the Lord of all muslims and have more right and power on their lives than they themselves. Do you believe in this assertion of mine?" They all in one voice replied “ Yes O’Apostle of God. Three times he asked the same question and three times he received the same affirmative reply. At this solemn affirmation he said, “Hear and remember that to whomever I am Lord or Maula, Ali is the Lord and Maula to him. He is to me what Aron was to Musa. The Almighty God be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foe, help those who help him and frustrate those who betray him. While saying this he raised Ali High over his shoulders in order to be seen by all the muslims assembled there. Thereupon the Holy Prophet received the final revelation: "This day I have perfected your religion for you and have filled up the measure of my bounties upon you and I am pleased with Islam to be your Deen,"(religion) (Sura 5 :V 3 ).

After performing this ceremony and receiving the above revelation the Holy Prophet came down from the pulpit and ordered a tent to be erected. In this Ali (AS)was made to take his seat and all muslims were ordered to pay homage to him and address him as Amirul Momeneen (Lord of the faithful) The first person to congratulate and address him as such was Omar Ibne Khattab saying, “I congratulate you, O’Ali, today you have become my Maula and Lord and Lord of every muslim man and woman. 1.

The event of Ghadeer was on 18th of Zilhijja 10th Hijri, immediately after the last pilgrimage by the Holy Prophet. He then arrived back in Madina and lived only for 70 days after the event.(130 Prominent Companions of the Holy Prophet narrated this Hadith including the first three Kholafa-e-Rashidoon)

The year 11th AH was the saddest year for Ali.(AS) He lost two of his best friends. One of whom he loved and venerated like a father, like a master and like a dearest friend, the Holy Prophet(SA) who died on 28th Safar 11th Hijri, exactly 70 days after the event of Ghadeer. His death followed by the death of his dearest companion his wife Fatima, the Lady of Light.

Immediately after the death of the Holy Prophet who was buried by Ali (AS)with the help of his uncle Abbas and all the family of Bani Hashim, the news was given to Ali(AS) about the events at the Saqeefa that Abubakr was made Caliph. Abu Sofian heard the news came to Ali(AS) and told him that his Right was taken away from him. If he wishes, Abu Sofian would fill the city of Madina with horsemen to defend Ali’s Right of Khilafat. Ali’s reply was typical, he said,” since when you have become friends of Islam”, you want to create serious dissension amongst the muslims. You have always tried to harm Islam I do not need your sympathies or help.” Ali realized that any serious dissension at this stage would harm the cause of Islam. He had before him the example of Hodaibiya and he had been foretold by the Holy Prophet of all that would happen. Allama Ali Ibne Mohammed (630 AH) in his book Usdul Ghaba Vol iv page 31 says, The Holy Prophet had told Ali, your status is like that of Kaaba. People go to Kaaba but that August house never approaches anybody. Therefore after my death, if people come to you and swear the oath of allegiance you accept it and if they do not come to you then you do not go to them.”

Ali’s love for Islam was so intense, he could not,for the sake of wordly rule, endanger Islam. He knew fully well that a civil war at this stage would give chances to the jewish tribes of Banu Nuzair and Banu Qoraiza on the one side, and the Byzantine armies in thnorth with the Munafiqoon (hypocrites) the new converts on the third side to simply take advantage of the situation. When they would find the muslims busy killing each other they would literally cut them to pieces and Islam would totally disappear as a message of peace. Ali’s utmost desire was to see Islam and the Arabs in one piece and wanted the enemies of Islam to realize that Islam was strong enough to defend itself as “Deen”. even after the demise of the Apostle of God.,He had another important job to complete that is the completion of the collection of Qur'an with its Tafseer (explanations) according to the instructions of the Holy Prophet. Qur'an as a bwas already completed by the Holy Prophet, many copies were made and circulated among the muslim communities all over the Islamic world. What Ali did in the next six months after the demise of the Holy Prophet was to collect all the explanations of the various verses, reasons behind their revelation and their full context. This monumental job he completed in six months and brought before the muslims in the city of the Prophet.Unfortunately this was ignored by the ruling party and Ali(AS) took it back with him.Their comment was "this is too bulky and people will not understand it.”

The original remained with Ali (AS) all his life and then passed on to his son Hasan (AS) and then to Hussain (AS) which then continued with the Ahlulbayt of the Prophet. It is now with the 12th Imam (AS).

During the time of the three Kholafa, although Ali (AS) did not take part in any of the battles, he was always available when they sought his advice on religious matters. His position as the jurist was on the top of the list among the companions of the Holy Prophet. Omar Ibne Khattab the 2nd Caliph had given clear instructions that when Ali was present in the mosque of the Prophet no one should take precedence over him in answering questions on religious matters. In one such encounter during the time of the 2nd Caliph, a group of Jewish scholars approached the caliph and said, “ We have a few questions. If we get the answers to these questions correctly, we will accept the Islamic faith. “Ask whatever you want to ask," said the caliph. They asked the following questions.

1. What are the locks and keys of heaven?

2. Who was the messenger who was neither of the human nor of the jinn and who warned his people?

3. Which are the 5 beings who were created without the aid of ovaries?

4 What are one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven and twelve?

The caliph thought over these questions for a time, then said, I do not know the answers to these questions. I will take you to a man who is most knowledgeable in the commandments of God and the Prophet and the greatest among us. The caliph then brought the jewish scholars to Ali (AS). They asked the same questions to him. Ali(AS) answered thus:

1. The locks of the heavens are beliefs in more than one God, and its keys are the letters of “La Ilaha Illallah, Muhammad-Ur-Rasulallah.”

2. The messenger who warned his people is the ant who, when Solomon’s army was passing by, said to his people, “ Enter your houses so that the army may not stamp you out (without intention)”. So God states in the Holy Qur'an, “ Until they came to the valley of the Ants, said an ant (addressing the other ants of the valley) O” you ants’ enter into your dwellings, so that Solomon and his hosts may not crush you while they know it not”. (Sura An-Naml.V 18)

3. The five beings who were not born of ovaries are: Adam, Eve, the staff of Moses which used to change into a python, the camel of Saleh, and the sheep of Ibrahim (which was sent by God to become a ransom of the life of Ibrahim’s son Ismael).

4. One is God who has no partners, two are Adam and Eve, three are the substances ( i.e. non-living matter, plants and animals), four are the Heavenly books: Torah of Moses, Bible of Jesus, Zubur of Dawood and the Qur'an of Muhammad (SA). Five are the daily prayers. Six are the days of creation of the heavens and earth, as per the verse of the Qur'an: “ And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and what is between them two, in six periods and touched us not any fatigue.” (Sura Qaf V.38). Seven are the seven heavens, in the light of the Qoranic Verse: “ And we have erected above you the seven strong ones.”(Sura An-Naba V12)

Eight are those angels who bear the heavens, as per the Qur'anic Verse: “ And the angels shall be on the side of it; and above them shall bear that day ‘Arsh’(the throne of authority). of your Lord, eight of them (Sura Al-Haqqah.V.17) Nine are the nine signs given to Moses as stated by God: “And indeed we gave Moses nine clear signs (miracles); so ask the children of Israel when he came to them, Pharoah said to him; “Verily I deem you O’Moses one bewitched.”(Sura Bani Israel, V 101). Ten are the ten days, i.e. God had promissed Moses that he would stay on the mountain of Toor for thirty days, and later added ten more days to this duration, as it is stated in the Qoran.” And we made an appointment with Moses for thirty nights and completed it with ten more;” Thus was completed the term of his Lord, forty nights, and (before he went up) Moses said to his brother Aaron: You take my place among my people, act rightly and follow not the path of the mischief-makers.” (Sura Al-A’araf. V.142). Eleven are the brothers of Joseph, son of Jacob, as the Qur'an states, “When said Joseph to his father, O’my father; Verily I did see (dream) eleven stars and the sun and the moon,, I saw them all prostrating to me.” (Sura Yousuf.V.4) . Twelve are the Twelve water-springs manifested by the staff of Moses, as God states, “ And (remember) when Moses sought water for his people; said We, ‘Strike the rock with your staff’ Then gushed out therefrom twelve springs; each people knew their drinking place; “Eat and drink God’s provision, and commit not evil in the earth acting mischievously. ”(Sura Al BaqaraV60).

When the jewish scholars heard the replies of Ali (AS) they said, “We bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad(SA) is His Messenger and Ali(AS) is the “Wasi” and successor of the Messenger of God as Aaron was the Wasi of Moses. They all embraced Islam, went back to their tribe and converted all of them to Islam.(Kaukabe Durri).

After the death of Osman the 3rd Caliph Ali(AS) was elected by the overwhelming majority of muslims as the 4th Caliph. He was reluctant to accept the office of the caliph but when pushed by the majority , accepted it by saying that he was taking the reigns of wordly authority only to bring back the Ummah of the Prophet on the Right Path, though the value of this wordly khilafat is less than the sneeze of a goat. His position as an Imam and guide was already established during the period of three earlier khulafa, with wordly power he began the undaunting task of establishing the type of rule the Messenger of God had established during his time. Imam Bukhari mentioned in his Saheeh that the very first prayers which Ali (AS) lead in the mosque of the Prophet as the Caliph, many companions of the prophet said that “ today we have prayed as the Messenger of God used to pray”. But during the past 25 years many companions of the Prophet had, due to excessive wealth coming in from the conquest of the foreign lands, changed into the habit of living like feudal lords of the period of Jahiliya of pre-Islamic days. Ali (AS) as caliph warned them of the dangers of excessive wealth by these words. " Beware of the intoxication of wealth”.(Masudi,Muruj el Zahab).

The path of Ali (AS) was full of thorns and as soon as he tried to establish the austere path of the Messenger of God, he created many enemies. The first and foremost was the Governor of Syria Moawiya ibne Abi Sofian. He persuaded Talha and Zubair,when they were denied the Governorship of various provinces by Ali(AS), to start a revolt against Ali.(AS) Both of them left Madina, arrived in Makka and somehow persuaded bibi Ayesha the widow of the Prophet to start a fight against Ali.(AS) They left Makka for Basra and assembled an armyagainst Ali.(AS). He warned them of the dangers of war against the caliph upon whose hand they had taken the oath of allegiance, but persuasion from Moawiya and promises of Governorship of various provinces was so strong that they would not hear any advice. Ali (AS) left Madina in pursuit of these deviants and two muslim armies faced each other near Basra. When many companions of the Prophet saw this they questioned the validity of this war and cast doubt as to which party was on the right path. Ali(AS) replied in the most subtle way to these doubters. “ Truth cannot be identified from men, find the truth and you will find the deserving person”. The battle of Jamal was fought, Ali ‘s army was victorious, boTalha and Zubair were killed by their own men and bibi Ayesha was sent back to Madina under the escort of her brother Muhammad ibne Abibakr. She always repented this venture and asked forgiveness from God. When with the connivance of Moawiya her brother Muhammad ibne abi bakr was killed and his body was put into the body of a dead camel and burnt, she cursed Moawiya five times a day after every prayer, throughout her life..

The Battle of Siffin was also fought due to the deviant action of Moawiya against the Islamic State. Some companions of Ali’s army deserted him by accepting bribes from Moawiya and due to this deceitful action the battle of Siffin remained indecisive, no one won and no one lost. In the meantime this deviant group which were later named as “Khawarij” meaning deviant, began to spread trouble within the Islamic State by looting and burning villages and killing women and children that Ali(AS) fought against them and the battle of Nahrwan took place.

On the way to Nahrwan Ali(AS) passed a monastery. An old Christian monk who also claimed to be an astrologer of some repute called out, “ O’ army of Islam, ask your leader to come to me. Upon hearing this Ali (AS) turned his horse towards the monastery and approached the monk. Where do you go ask the monk. To fight the enemies of Islam, replied Ali(AS).

Do not fight now, because at this moment the stars do not favour the muslims. Wait for a few days when the stars will become favourable for you. Ali (AS) replied, do you defy Allah for this action we are taking on the orders of Allah and for His Deen.

Ali (AS) said, “ since you profess knowledge of the stars, tell me about the movement of such and such star.” The old man said, By God, I have never heard the name of this star. Ali(AS) asked him another question about the skies and when the old man failed to reply, said “ It is now known that you do not know about the skies. Shall I ask you about the earth? Tell me what is buried beneath your feet at the spot where you stand. I do not know said the old monk., “There is a vessel filled with so many silver coins and the coins bear such and such emblem. How do you know enquired the monk”. “ By God’s grace.” said Ali (AS). Then Ali proceeded to say that in the ensuing fight, less than ten persons of Islamic army would be killed where as less then ten persons from the opposing army would escape. The old monk listened astonished. As per Ali’s command, when the earth beneath the feet of the monk was dug, a vessel filled with silver coins was found exactly as described by Ali (AS)

Ali (AS) proceeded to Nahrwan and in the ensuing fight, the khawarij were thoroughly defeated. Out of the four thousand men of the khawarij only nine escaped and only nine men of the Islamic army were killed in this battle. (Rawdhatul Shuhada, Kaukab el Durri )

Returning from the battle Ali(AS) passed the monastery and when the monk heard the full story he embraced Islam immediately.

Ali(AS) also admonished him about his belief in astrology. He said “ do you think you can tell the hour when a man goes out and no evil befall him. Whoever testifies this falsifies the Qoran and becomes unmindful of Allah in achieving his desired objective and in warding off the undesirable.” Then Ali (AS) addressed to his own soldiers and said “ Beware of learning the science of stars except that with which guidance is sought on land or sea, because it leads to divining and an astrologer is a diviner, while a diviner is like the sorcerer, the sorcerer is like the unbeliever and the unbeliever’s place is in hell.”(Nahjul Balagha)

The four years and ten months of the Khilafat of Ali(AS) has been regarded by many historians as the best example of Islamic State after the Prophet of Islam’s death, in spite of the fact that the family of Abu Sofian tried their best to destroy it. Imam Abu Yousuf the famous disciple of Imam Abu Hanifa in his book about the history of Kholafae Rashedun declares above the title of his book that Ali’s (AS) time of Khilafat was the best in the management of the Islamic State and most just.

Many European historians mentioned Ali’s name with love and affection. Carlyle writes in his Heros and Heroworship that” Ali had such a personality that he was liked, loved and venerated by everybody. He was the man of excellent character loving and lovable, so intensely brave that if anything stood against his bravery it was consumed as if by fire, yet he was so gentle and kind that he represented the model of a Christian Knight.”

The famous Egyptian scholar Mohammad Abdoh relates a story about the time of the conquest of Alexandria during the reign of the 2nd caliph. They found a great library there and did not know what to do with it. Orders were issued from Madina that ‘ if these books are according to the Holy Qur'an, then we do not need them and if they say anything contrary to the Holy Qur'an then we do not want them. Therefore, in any case they ought to be burnt. (Akhbarul Ulama wa Aakhbarul Hukama of Ibne Quftee, pages 232 and 233,Printed Cairo). When Ali (As) heard the news of this, he tried to pursude them to refrain from issuing such order. He told them, “These books are treasures of knowledge and they cannot say anything against the Holy Qur'an. On the contrary the knowledge contained therein would act as commentaries of the Holy Book and would assist and help in further explanations of the knowledge as presented by the Holy Prophet. Knowledge is an asset for human beings and a birth right of man. It should not be destroyed.”

It was 19th of Ramadhan 41 Hijri while Ali (AS) was leading the morning prayers and was in the second sajdah of the 2nd Rakaat that Ibne Muljim’s sword fell and the life of the greatest warrior saint was taken away to his merciful Lord. The famous christian writer of Lebanon George Jurdaq writes in his books on Ali(AS) that with this one blow of the sword of Ibne Muljim the world was deprived of the person who, if had lived a few more years would have given the world a system of administration that future generations would have benefited for a long time to come.” In fact the letter to his Governor of Egypt Malike Ashter advising him of the “Do’s and Don’ts for a successful administration of the State is the hall mark in the annals of history”. We can only say that Ali’s supreme wisdom provides the guidance of a stature that mankind can aspire to.

Ali (AS) injured with the wound from the poisonous sword lived for two days. In these two days he dictated his Will and last testament to his son Hasan (AS) which is again a brilliant part of literary history. He advised his eldest son to love God and obey Him and to live for the service of the people in the way of God. “ And then do not forget to set apart the best of your time for communion with God, although every moment of yours is for Him, provided it is spent sincerely in the service of your people.”

Ali's (AS) sermons, collected by Sayid Razi in the 4th century (AH) are the examples of the most brilliant piece of Arabic literature that after the Holy Qor’an and the authentic Hadith of the Prophet of Islam, ever produced.

What Syed Razi could compile in Nehjul Balagha does not contain all the Sermons, letters and sayings of Ali (AS). Masoodi (d.346) in his famous book of history Muruj-al-Zahab says that the only Sermons of Ali,(AS) which have been preserved by various peop, number more than 480. These were extempore orations, people have copied them from one another and compiled them in the book forms’ they have cited them and quoted passages from them in their books. The famous companion and pupil of Ali (AS) Hasan al Basri had made such arrangements that one of his own friends would memorise the sermons delivered in the mosque of Kufa and relate the same in the next Fridays prayer in Basra. This shows the deep interest people of his own time had in these sermons and sayings.

Apparently out of these 480 sermons some were lost and Syed Razi could lay hands on only 245 sermons. Besides them he has collected about 75 letters and 489 sayings. Almost everyone of the sermons, sayings and letters collected in Nehjul Balagha is to be found books of authors who died long before Syed Raza was even born.

Here we quote a few selected sayings of Ali (AS) from Nehjul Balagha, The numbers given as they appear in the English translation by Syed Ali Raza from Pakistan.

1. During civil disturbance be like an adolescent camel who has neither a back strong enough for riding nor udders for milking.”( 1, page 568)

2. He who adopts greed as a habit devalues himself, he who discloses his hardship agrees to humiliation, and he who allows his tongue to overpower his Nafs debases the Nafs.(2 page 569)

5. Knowledge is a venerable estate, good manners are new dresses and thinking is a clear mirror. ( 5, page 569)

7. Charity is an effective cure, and actions of people in their present life will be before their eyes in the next life.( 7, page 570)

10.Meet people in such a manner that if you die they should weep for you and if you live they should long for you.( 10, page 571)

27." Keep walking in your sickness as long as you can."(27, page 576)-A simple cure through exercise and ignoring the sickness as much as possible)

31. Faith stands on four supports: on endurance, conviction, justice and Jihad.(31 page 576)

40. The tongue of the wiseman is behind his heart and the heart of the fool is behind his tongue.(40 page 579)

45. Even if I strike the nose of a believer with this sword for hating me, he will not hate me, and even if I pile all the wealth of the world before a hypocrite for loving me he will not love. This is because it is pronounced by the tongue of the beloved Prophet. O’Ali, a believer will never hate you and a hypocrite (Muslim) will never love you.( 45 page 580)

54. There is no wealth like wisdom, no destitution like ignorance, no inheritance like refinement and no support like consultation.(54 page 584)

64. The people of the world are like travellers who are being carried while asleep. 64, page 584)

67. Do not feel ashamed for giving little, because refusal is smaller than that.( 67, page 584)

90. The perfect jurist of Islam is he who does not let people lose hope from the mercy of Allah, does not make him despondent of Allah’s kindness and does not make him feel safe from Allah’s punishment.( 90 page 589)

117. Two categories of persons will face ruin on account of me; he who loves me with exaggeration and he who hates me intensely. (117 page 594)

146. Protect your belief by charity, guard your wealth by paying Allah’s share, and ward off the waves of calamity by praying.(146 page 600)

334. Beware of disobeying Allah in solitude, for the witness is also the judge.(334. page 648)

The famous French historian and Orientalist Gabriel Enkiri writes in his famous book ‘Le chevealier de Islam’,In the extremely superfine, grand and noble character of Ali, there were two traits which, it is difficult to believe that can be united in one man. Besides Ali, history cannot show any other man who has displayed these two qualities at one and the same time, and each one, in such a marked way that none can surpassed him.

1. He was the greatest marshal of his time (even of all time) and , 2. He was the wisest man who could explain and expound religion, philosophy, science, sociology and ethics, in a style which was not and which cannot be improved; what is more, he was such a great speaker that his speeches enchant you even fourteen centuries after his death”.

Noha By Nadeem Sarwar - Shaam-e- Ghariban Ya HUSSAIN - Year 2010-2011

In November 2010 Safeer-e-Aza Syed Nadeem Raza Sarwar went back to the studio to re-record his famous Nauha "Ya Hussain" from his 1991 album on huge demand from momineen all around the world...

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